1) To find out your present working directory:


2) To change the directory:



cd: used to navigate into a specified directory on a server.

Example: cd /home (moves to the home folder)

3) To the same directory


Using this command you will remain in the same directory you were.

4) To move up from one directory

cd ..

Above command will navigate two steps back from the current directory

5) Go to the previous directory

cd –

Above command will navigate to the previous directory.

6) Go to the Home folder

cd ~

Above command will navigate to the home directory on your server.

7) Go to root

cd /

Above command will navigate to root.

How to List Directories and Contents

8) List files

usage: ls [option] [file]

Using the ls command in a folder will display all its content.

Example: ls /home.

Will return all content of the folder /home.

9) Show me all files in a directory

ls -a

10) Show contents with file size

ls -h

11) How to see sub-directories recursively

ls -r

The ls -r command is used to see sub-directories recursively.

12) How to see files by file size

ls -is

13) List all folders in the directory with details

ls -alh

How to Copy files/folders with Putty Commands

14) Copying a file


To copy a file just use the cp ssh command.


cp filename.php /home/filename.php

15) Copy a folder with all files

cp -r

This one is used to copy the entire folder with all it’s contents.

16) Copy and rename

cp filename.php /home/filename2.php

How to Move files to different locations

17) Moving a file


Example: mv page.php /home/page.php

18) Move and rename

mv page.php /home/newpage.php

19) Move file up one directory

mv filename ..

example: mv index.html/ ..

How to Create files/folders using Putty Commands

20) Create a folder


example: mkdir new-folder

21) Create a file


Use the touch command to create different files and file extensions

Example: touch index.php

How to Compress/Uncompress files?

22) Compressing folders

zip -r foldername.zip foldername

Example: zip -r newfolder.zip newfolder

23) uncompressing folders


Example: unzip newfolder.zip

24) Compressing folders using tar -czvf

tar -czvf foldername.tar.gz foldername

Example: tar -czvf wp-content.tar.gz wp-content

25) uncompressing folders using tar -czvf

tar -xvf foldername.tar.gz

Example: tar -xvf wp-content.tar.gz

How to Delete/Remove files?

26) Delete a file


To delete a file on your server just use the rm command.

Example: rm index.php

27) Delete all files from a directory

rm *

This command is used to delete all contents from a directory.

Example: rm * folder name

28) Delete a folder/directory


Use this command to remove directories.

How to change File permissions?

29) Change file permissions


Example: chmod 775 newfolder

30) Change permissions of folder and all files inside

chmod 755 folder name -R


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