How to Use the RPM Command?

RPM stands for "Redhat Package Manager" is a command-line package management tool for RHEL/CentOS based operating system. You can install, uninstall, update, query and verify package using the RPM command. This tool only works with packages built-in .rpm format. RPM command can only install the specified package, it can not install the dependencies required for that package.

 

Prerequisites:

  • A server running CentOS, RHEL or Fedora.
  • A root password is configured on your server.

 

Basic Syntax

The basic syntax of RPM command is shown below:

rpm [OPTION] [PACKAGENAME]

 

You can list all available options with RPM command using the following command:

rpm --help

 

Installing, Updating and Removing Package with RPM

 

Before installing any RPM package, you can list the dependencies for that package with the following command:

rpm -qpR epel-release-latest-8.noarch.rpm

 

Output:
Output:
warning: epel-release-latest-8.noarch.rpm: Header V3 RSA/SHA256 Signature, key ID 2f86d6a1: NOKEY
config(epel-release) = 8-7.el8
redhat-release >= 8
rpmlib(CompressedFileNames) <= 3.0.4-1
rpmlib(FileDigests) <= 4.6.0-1
rpmlib(PayloadFilesHavePrefix) <= 4.0-1
rpmlib(PayloadIsXz) <= 5.2-1

 

You can also get the information of that package with the following command:

rpm -qip epel-release-latest-8.noarch.rpm

 

Output:
warning: epel-release-latest-8.noarch.rpm: Header V3 RSA/SHA256 Signature, key ID 2f86d6a1: NOKEY
Name        : epel-release
Version     : 8
Release     : 7.el8
Architecture: noarch
Install Date: (not installed)
Group       : System Environment/Base
Size        : 30269
License     : GPLv2
Signature   : RSA/SHA256, Thursday 10 October 2019 12:19:30 PM EDT, Key ID 21ea45ab2f86d6a1
Source RPM  : epel-release-8-7.el8.src.rpm
Build Date  : Thursday 10 October 2019 12:16:18 PM EDT
Build Host  : buildvm-04.phx2.fedoraproject.org
Relocations : (not relocatable)
Packager    : Fedora Project
Vendor      : Fedora Project
URL         : http://download.fedoraproject.org/pub/epel
Bug URL     : https://bugz.fedoraproject.org/epel-release
Summary     : Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux repository configuration
Description :
This package contains the Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux (EPEL) repository
GPG key as well as configuration for yum.

 

You can install this package using the following command:

rpm -ivh epel-release-latest-8.noarch.rpm

 

Output:
Output:
warning: epel-release-latest-8.noarch.rpm: Header V3 RSA/SHA256 Signature, key ID 2f86d6a1: NOKEY
Verifying...                          ################################# [100%]
Preparing...                          ################################# [100%]
Updating / installing...
   1:epel-release-8-7.el8             ################################# [100%]

 

You can install any RPM package without any dependencies using the following command:

rpm -ivh --nodeps epel-release-latest-8.noarch.rpm

 

To update the installed RPM package, run the following command:

rpm -Uvh epel-release-latest-8.noarch.rpm

 

Output:
Output:

warning: epel-release-latest-8.noarch.rpm: Header V3 RSA/SHA256 Signature, key ID 2f86d6a1: NOKEY
Verifying...                          ################################# [100%]
Preparing...                          ################################# [100%]
	package epel-release-8-7.el8.noarch is already installed

 

To remove the installed RPM package, run the following command:

rpm -ev epel-release

 

Output:
Preparing packages...
epel-release-8-7.el8.noarch

 

Display Package Information with RPM

 

To display the detail information of any package run the following command:

rpm -ql epel-release

 

Output:
/etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-EPEL-8
/etc/yum.repos.d/epel-playground.repo
/etc/yum.repos.d/epel-testing.repo
/etc/yum.repos.d/epel.repo
/usr/lib/systemd/system-preset/90-epel.preset
/usr/share/doc/epel-release
/usr/share/doc/epel-release/GPL
/usr/share/doc/epel-release/README-epel-8-packaging.md

 

You can find the configuration files of any package with the following command:

rpm -qc httpd

 

Output:
/etc/httpd/conf.d/autoindex.conf
/etc/httpd/conf.d/userdir.conf
/etc/httpd/conf.d/welcome.conf
/etc/httpd/conf.modules.d/00-base.conf
/etc/httpd/conf.modules.d/00-dav.conf
/etc/httpd/conf.modules.d/00-lua.conf
/etc/httpd/conf.modules.d/00-mpm.conf
/etc/httpd/conf.modules.d/00-optional.conf
/etc/httpd/conf.modules.d/00-proxy.conf
/etc/httpd/conf.modules.d/00-systemd.conf
/etc/httpd/conf.modules.d/01-cgi.conf
/etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf
/etc/httpd/conf/magic
/etc/logrotate.d/httpd
/etc/sysconfig/htcacheclean

 

You can display more information about any package with the following command:

rpm -qi httpd

 

Output:
Output:
Name        : httpd
Version     : 2.4.37
Release     : 16.module_el8.1.0+256+ae790463
Architecture: x86_64
Install Date: Thursday 23 January 2020 11:48:36 PM EST
Group       : System Environment/Daemons
Size        : 5611291
License     : ASL 2.0
Signature   : RSA/SHA256, Monday 23 December 2019 05:22:02 PM EST, Key ID 05b555b38483c65d
Source RPM  : httpd-2.4.37-16.module_el8.1.0+256+ae790463.src.rpm
Build Date  : Monday 23 December 2019 03:46:30 PM EST
Build Host  : x86-02.mbox.centos.org
Relocations : (not relocatable)
Packager    : CentOS Buildsys <bugs@centos.org>
Vendor      : CentOS
URL         : https://httpd.apache.org/
Summary     : Apache HTTP Server
Description :
The Apache HTTP Server is a powerful, efficient, and extensible web server.

 

To find the package from the directory or file with the following command:

rpm -qf /etc/NetworkManager/

 

Output:
Output:
NetworkManager-1.14.0-14.el8.x86_64
dhcp-client-4.3.6-30.el8.x86_64

 

Verify Package with RPM

 

To verify any package before installing it using the following command:

rpm -Vp epel-release-latest-8.noarch.rpm

 

Output:
warning: epel-release-latest-8.noarch.rpm: Header V3 RSA/SHA256 Signature, key ID 2f86d6a1: NOKEY

 

To verify all the installed rpm packages, run the following command:

rpm -Va

 

Output:
Output:
.......T.  c /etc/kdump.conf
.M.......  g /var/lib/plymouth/boot-duration
.M.......  g /var/cache/dnf/packages.db
.....UG..  g /var/lib/sss/mc/group
.....UG..  g /var/lib/sss/mc/initgroups
.....UG..  g /var/lib/sss/mc/passwd
.M.......  c /etc/rc.d/rc.local
.M.......  c /etc/machine-id

 

Check Information about Installed Package with RPM

 

To verify any package whether it is installed or not with the following command:

 

To verify the installed package, run the following command:

rpm -q epel-release

 

If the specified package is installed, you should see the following output:

epel-release-8-7.el8.noarch

 

To verify the package that is not installed, run the following command:

rpm -q mysql-server

 

You should get the following output:

package mysql-server is not installed

 

To list all the packages that are installed in your system, run the following command:

rpm -qa

 

Output:
Output:
dos2unix-7.4.0-3.el8.x86_64
platform-python-pip-9.0.3-13.el8.noarch
geolite2-country-20180605-1.el8.noarch
symlinks-1.4-19.el8.x86_64
python3-six-1.11.0-8.el8.noarch
fontpackages-filesystem-1.44-22.el8.noarch
rootfiles-8.1-22.el8.noarch
polkit-0.115-6.el8.x86_64
xkeyboard-config-2.24-3.el8.noarch
iwl6050-firmware-41.28.5.1-92.el8.1.noarch
libmodulemd1-1.8.0-5.el8.x86_64
pkgconf-m4-1.4.2-1.el8.noarch
iwl5000-firmware-8.83.5.1_1-92.el8.1.noarch
samba-common-4.9.1-8.el8.noarch
kbd-misc-2.0.4-8.el8.noarch

 

To list all installed package by name and size, run the following command:

rpm -qa --queryformat '%{name} %{size}\n'

 

Output:
Output:
dos2unix 682042
platform-python-pip 7746190
geolite2-country 3424334
symlinks 19682
python3-six 100282
fontpackages-filesystem 0
rootfiles 599

 

Find Manual Page of Any Package with RPM

 

You can run the following to know the list of documentation for a package that owns a file or folder.

rpm -qdf /etc/NetworkManager/

 

Output:
Output:
/usr/share/doc/NetworkManager/AUTHORS
/usr/share/doc/NetworkManager/CONTRIBUTING
/usr/share/doc/NetworkManager/NEWS
/usr/share/doc/NetworkManager/README
/usr/share/doc/NetworkManager/TODO
/usr/share/doc/NetworkManager/examples/server.conf
/usr/share/man/man1/nm-online.1.gz
/usr/share/man/man1/nmcli.1.gz
/usr/share/man/man5/NetworkManager.conf.5.gz
/usr/share/man/man5/nm-settings-ifcfg-rh.5.gz
/usr/share/man/man5/nm-settings-keyfile.5.gz
/usr/share/man/man5/nm-settings.5.gz
/usr/share/man/man5/nm-system-settings.conf.5.gz
/usr/share/man/man7/nmcli-examples.7.gz
/usr/share/man/man8/NetworkManager.8.gz
/usr/share/doc/dhcp-client/README.dhclient.d
/usr/share/doc/dhcp-client/dhclient-enter-hooks
/usr/share/doc/dhcp-client/dhclient.conf.example
/usr/share/doc/dhcp-client/dhclient6.conf.example
/usr/share/man/man5/dhclient.conf.5.gz
/usr/share/man/man5/dhclient.leases.5.gz
/usr/share/man/man8/dhclient-script.8.gz
/usr/share/man/man8/dhclient.8.gz

 

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