- An Ubuntu/Debian/CentOS server with Docker installed—to get started with that, check out our getting started with Docker tutorial.
- A non-root user with sudo privileges.
- A fully-qualified domain name from a domain registrar.
- The ability to change DNS settings via your domain registrar.
Step 1. Starting up nginx-proxy to hook Docker and Nginx together
To get started, let’s start up the nginx-proxy container. This can be accomplished either by a single docker command, or using docker-compose. Let’s cover both.
But before we do that, let’s create a Docker network. The network will allow our containers to “talk” among themselves.
$ docker network create nginx-proxy
From now on, we need to add new containers to this nginx-proxy Docker network.
Installing nginx-proxy with Docker
$ docker run -d -p 80:80 --name nginx-proxy --net nginx-proxy -v /var/run/docker.sock:/tmp/docker.sock jwilder/nginx-proxy
Installing nginx-proxy with docker-compose
First, create a new docker-compose.yml file in the directory of your choosing (one named nginx-proxy is a good idea), and copy in the following text:
version: "3" services: nginx-proxy: image: jwilder/nginx-proxy container_name: nginx-proxy ports: - "80:80" volumes: - /var/run/docker.sock:/tmp/docker.sock:ro networks: default: external: name: nginx-proxy
And then run the following docker-compose command to get started.
$ docker-compose up -d
How nginx-proxy uses Docker and Nginx to host multiple websites on one VPS
First, the nginx-proxy container listens on port 80. All traffic that’s incoming to the VPS on port 80 will pass through nginx-proxy. That’s a good first step. But how does it know whether to send person A to blog.example.com and person B to app.example.com?
That’s what the /var/run/docker.sock:/tmp/docker.sock line accomplishes. Essentially, this gives any container access to the host’s Docker socket, which contains information about a variety of Docker events, such as creating a new container, or shutting one down.
Every time you add a new Docker container to your network, nginx-proxy sees the event through the socket, automatically creates the configuration file needed to route traffic, and restarts nginx to make the changes available immediately.
The proxy looks for containers with the VIRTUAL_HOST variable enabled. In that variable you specify the destination, like blog.example.com or app.example.com. The proxy will see that person A has requested blog.example.com and will route (or proxy!) their request to the correct container. Same goes for app.example.com or any other containers you want to run.
Also take note of the --net nginx-proxy line in the Docker command, and the networks: default: external: name: nginx-proxy block in the docker-compose.yml file. That’s how you specify which Docker network you want the new container to use.
Step 2. Adding your first Docker container to the Nginx proxy
Now that we have nginx-proxy running, we can start adding new containers, which will be automatically picked up and configured for. Because we covered it in the last Docker tutorial, and since it’s an easy implementation to try out, let’s use WordPress as an example.
Starting a WordPress container with a basic configuration is quite easy.
$ docker run -d --name blog --expose 80 --net nginx-proxy -e VIRTUAL_HOST=blog.DOMAIN.TLD wordpress
Take note of a few elements here. --expose 80 will allow traffic to flow into the container on port 80. --net nginx-proxy ensures we’re using the Docker network we created earlier. Finally, -e VIRTUAL_HOST=blog.DOMAIN.TLD flags nginx-proxy to create the proxy and direct any traffic requesting that domain to this new Docker container. Replace DOMAIN.TLDwith the domain of your choice.
Start by creating a ‘docker-compose.yml’ file in an empty directory and copying in the following.
version: "3" services: db_node_domain: image: mysql:5.7 volumes: - db_data:/var/lib/mysql restart: always environment: MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD: PASSWORD MYSQL_DATABASE: wordpress MYSQL_USER: wordpress MYSQL_PASSWORD: PASSWORD container_name: wordpress_db wordpress: depends_on: - db_node_domain image: wordpress:latest expose: - 80 restart: always environment: VIRTUAL_HOST: blog.DOMAIN.TLD WORDPRESS_DB_HOST: db_node_domain:3306 WORDPRESS_DB_USER: wordpress WORDPRESS_DB_PASSWORD: PASSWORD container_name: wordpress volumes: db_data: networks: default: external: name: nginx-proxy
Again, take note of the expose and environment: VIRTUAL_HOST options within the file. Also, the networks option at the bottom is necessary to allow this container to “speak” with nginx-proxy.
You will also want to change passwords for the MySQL database itself, and for the WordPress user that accesses said database. WordPress will create a new password for your WordPress administrator account automatically during the set-up process.
Once the configuration file is finalized, you can run the docker-compose up -d command.
Step 3. Visiting your new WordPress site and adding more
At this point, you need to configure your domain’s DNS settings to point toward the IP address of your VPS. If you set up your blog on the blog. DOMAIN.TLD, create an A record for that subdomain and point it to the same IP address.
With your DNS set up correctly, you should be able to visit the blog. DOMAIN.TLD and see the famous 5-minute WordPress installation! Congratulations!
You can now boot up any other Docker containers, such as another WordPress site or any other type of app/service, and nginx-proxy will take care of the rest.
One caveat for multiple WordPress installations
If you are going to host multiple WordPress blogs using this method, you need to create a unique database name for each instance. By doing so you that WordPress A connects to MySQL A, WordPress B connects to MySQL B, and so on.
See the line just under services? The one that reads db_node_domain? That’s the name of your container. You can pick any naming scheme you’d like, but each instance needs to have a different name.
Once you’ve chosen a name, you need to update two other fields. First:
depends_on: - db_node_domain